Jones (1995: 16-17) postulates that academics mostly regard ‘real life’ to mean realities outside simulations. However, he differentiates four kinds of ‘real life’, namely:
- Reference points pertain to customary, legal, and ordinary that gives simulations a common code of conduct — Jones gives the example of meetings usually voting on an amendment, before voting on the motion itself.
- Consequences of real life imply the long-term repercussions, ethics, environmental impact, etc.
- Mimicry belongs on stage or in movies, but is not appropriate in a simulation — participants should during debriefing be capable to substantiate their behaviour exhibited during.
- Intrusions are prevalent of real life and take many forms; intrusions may be constructive and/or disruptive — it is not advisable that facilitators intrude in a simulation, because inevitably the facilitator ends up being blamed by participants
In addition to real life, Jones (1995) differentiates simulations, role plays, games and exercises as various modes of interactive methodologies. He also adds ambivalence:
Ambivalent/ce originate from Latin ‘ambi’ meaning ‘both’ & ‘valentia’ meaning ‘strength’ or ‘valere’ meaning ‘be strong’ — it is the simultaneous/coexisting conflicting/opposing/contradictory feelings/ attitudes/view points, such as attraction and repulsion. Jones (1995: 19) uses the term ambivalence for an interactive event that is incompatible and entail conflicting methodologies, which may cause considerable harm—both personally and interpersonally—and are best avoided.
Jones, K. 1995. Simulations, a handbook for teachers and trainers. 3rd edition. London: Kogan Page.